OldUmbrella

Tuesday, April 05, 2005

Auk

Birds of the auk family, often called alcids, range in length from about 15 to 40 cm (6 to 16 inches), though

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Auk

A soft, silvery-white or grayish metal in Group IVa of the periodic table. Lead is very malleable, ductile, and dense and is a poor conductor of electricity. Known in antiquity and believed by the alchemists to be the oldest of metals, lead is highly durable and resistant to corrosion, as is indicated by the continuing use of lead water pipes installed by the ancient

Friday, April 01, 2005

Avignon Papacy

Distressed by factionalism in Rome and pressed to come to France by Philip IV, Pope Clement V moved the papal capital to Avignon, which at that time belonged to vassals of the pope. In 1348 it became direct papal property.

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Garibaldi, Giuseppe

Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento, a republican who, through his conquest of Sicily and Naples with his guerrilla Redshirts, contributed to the achievement of Italian unification under the royal House of Savoy.

Monday, March 28, 2005

Dabrowska, Maria

Born into a relatively impecunious family of landowners, Dabrowska was educated in Poland, at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, and then in Belgium. Afterward, she lived in France and Great Britain until World War II. In 1909 she had begun to write articles

Friday, March 25, 2005

German Literature, Aestheticism

In the final decades of the 19th century the literary scene was divided between naturalism and its opposites, variously collected under terms such as Neoromanticism, Impressionism, Jugendstil, and Decadence. Aestheticism—the belief that the work of art need have no moral or political use beyond its existence as a beautiful object—may prove to be the most appropriate

Thursday, March 24, 2005

Denmark, Flag Of

According to tradition, the Danish flag fell from heaven on June 15, 1219, during the Battle of Lyndanisse (near modern Tallinn, Estonia) as a sign from God of his support for King Valdemar II against the pagan Estonians. Contemporary references to this flag date from a century later, and evidence suggests that the flag was not unique to Denmark. Many small states in the Holy Roman